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Course Name Course Code
SAS 81
Course Contents



Duration: one month




·         An Overview of the SAS System


Getting Started with the SAS System


·         Introduction to SAS Programs

·         Running SAS Programs

·         Mastering Fundamental Concepts

·         Diagnosing and Correcting Syntax Errors

·         Exploring Your SAS Environment

·         SAS Data Libraries


Reading and Writing External Files



·         Column input mode

·         List input mode

·         Formatted input mode

·         Pointer controls

·         INPUT function

·         Statements: FILE, PUT

·         Using DATA _NULL_

·         PUT function

·         Creating customized reports using DATA steps

·         Reading non-ASCII files, such as Excel, SPSS, or DBMS files

·         Examining Data Errors

·         Assigning Variable Attributes

·         Changing Variable Attributes

·         Reading Excel Spreadsheets


DATA Step Programming


·         Reading SAS Data Sets and Creating Variables

·         Conditional Processing

·         Dropping and Keeping Variables

·         Reading Excel Spreadsheets Containing Date Fields


Controlling Input and Output


·         Outputting Multiple Observations

·         Writing to Multiple SAS Data Sets

·         Selecting Variables and Observations

·         Writing to an External File




Summarizing Data


·         Creating an Accumulating Total Variable

·         Accumulating Totals for a Group of Data


Reading and Writing Different Types of Data


·         Reading Delimited Raw Data Files

·         Controlling When a Record Loads

·         Reading Hierarchical Raw Data Files

·         Declarative vs. executable statements

·         Statements: RETAIN, RENAME, LABEL, FORMAT, sum

·         SAS-supplied formats and PROC FORMAT for user-defined formats

·         Using formats in DATA steps

·         PUT function


Transforming SAS Data Sets


·         Creating SAS data sets with DATA steps: flow of execution, including program data vector

·         Creating variables in DATA steps with assignment statements


·         Subsetting observations and variables

·         Manipulating Character Values

·         Manipulating Numeric Values

·         Manipulating Numeric Values Based on Dates

·         Converting Variable Type

·         Using SAS functions and operators

·         Working with SAS date values (also time and date-time)

·         Introduction to missing values


 Producing List Reports


·         Getting Started with the PRINT Procedure

·         Sequencing and Grouping Observations

·         Identifying Observations

·         Special WHERE Statement Operators


Enhancing Output


·         Customizing Report Appearance

·         Formatting Data Values

·         Creating HTML Reports

·         Creating XML Reports

·         Creating RTF Reports

·         Creating PDF Reports


Debugging Techniques


·         Using the PUT Statement

·         Using the DEBUG Option



Processing Data Iteratively


·         DO Loop Processing

·         SAS Array Processing

·         Using SAS Arrays


Combining and Managing SAS Data Sets


·         SET statement for concatenation and interleaving

·         MERGE statement for joining observations

·         UPDATE statement for updating a master file (maybe)

·         Special variables: IN, END, FIRST. and LAST.

·         Creating multiple data sets in one DATA step

·         Reshaping data sets

·         Managing data sets using PROC COPY and PROC DATASETS

·         Transporting data sets between hosts

·         Concatenating SAS Data Sets

·         Combining SAS Data Sets: Additional Features

·         Match-Merging Two or More SAS Data Sets

·         Simple Joins Using the SQL Procedure


Using SAS Procedures and ODS


·         Introduce the idea of SAS system options

·         Briefly review statements that can be used with most procedures (BY, WHERE, TITLE, FOOTNOTE, LABEL, FORMAT)

·         PROC SORT for sorting a data set

·         PROC CONTENTS for describing a data set

·         PROC PRINT for listing the observations in a data set

·         PROC CHART and PROC PLOT for producing low-resolution graphs

·         PROC FREQ for one-way frequency tables and n-way cross-tabulations

·         PROC UNIVARIATE for descriptive statistics and distributional information

·         PROC MEANS for descriptive statistics

·         SAS documentation and the online help system

·         introduce the Output Delivery System (ODS) for customizing procedure output


Producing Summary Reports


·         Introduction to Summary Reports

·         Basic Summary Reports

·         The REPORT Procedure

·         The TABULATE Procedure


Introduction to Graphics


·         Producing Bar and Pie Charts

·         Introduce concepts related to high-resolution graphs

·         PROC GCHART and PROC GPLOT for producing high-resolution graphs

·         Introduction to statistical graphics procedures GOPTIONS, GDEVICE,GSCATTER, and GPANEL

·         Enhancing Output

·         Producing Plots

Introduction to Statistics

·         examining data distributions

·         obtaining and interpreting sample statistics using the UNIVARIATE and MEANS procedures

·         examining data distributions graphically in the UNIVARIATE and SGPLOT procedures

·         constructing confidence intervals

·         performing simple tests of hypothesis

t-Tests and Analysis of Variance

·         performing tests of differences between two group means using PROC TTEST

·         performing one-way ANOVA with the GLM procedure

·         performing post-hoc multiple comparisons tests in PROC GLM

·         performing two-way ANOVA with and without interactions

Linear Regression

·         producing correlations with the CORR procedure

·         fitting a simple linear regression model with the REG procedure

·         understanding the concepts of multiple regression

·         using automated model selection techniques in PROC REG to choose from among several candidate models

·         interpreting models

Linear Regression Diagnostics

·         examining residuals

·         investigating influential observations

·         assessing co linearity

Categorical Data Analysis

·         producing frequency tables with the FREQ procedure

·         examining tests for general and linear association using the FREQ procedure

·         understanding exact tests

·         understanding the concepts of logistic regression

·         fitting univariate and multivariate logistic regression models using the e LOGISTIC procedure

The MACRO Language


·         Why use macros?

·         Macro variables – system-defined and user-defined

·         Macros

·         Macro parameters

·         Macro functions

·         Conditional execution and DO loops

·         CALL SYMPUT




Connecting With Your Data

  • Understanding of the client / server environment in Microsoft Windows
  • Understanding of Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) and SAS support of a DDE link
  • Understanding of Open Database Connectivity
  • Understanding of the use of SAS as both an ODBC client and an ODBC server

Introducing the Structured Query Language


  • overview of the SQL procedure
  • specifying columns
  • specifying rows
  • presenting data
  • summarizing data


Sub queries


  • noncorrelated sub queries and correlated sub queries
  • SQL Joins
  • introduction to SQL joins
  • complex SQL joins


Set Operators


  • introduction to set operators
  • the EXCEPT operator
  • the INTERSECT operator
  • the UNION operator
  • the OUTER UNION operator


Creating Tables and Views


  • creating views with the SQL procedure
  • creating tables with the SQL procedure
  • integrity constraints
  • Additional SQL Procedure Features
  • setting SQL procedure options
  • dictionary tables and views
  • interfacing PROC SQL with the macro language
  • program testing and performance


Managing Tables


  • introduction to indexes
  • creating indexes
  • maintaining tables


Accessing Relational Databases 


  • LIBNAME access to DBMS data
  • executing DBMS-specific SQL using the SQL Pass-Through Facility